Drug Trafficking, Schedule IV (Sentencing)
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|Drug Trafficking, Schedule IV|
|s. 5(1), (2) of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act|
|Election / Plea|
summary proceedings must initiate within 12 months of the offence (786(2))
Sup. Court w/ Jury (*)
|Avail. Disp.||Discharge (730)|
Suspended Sentence (731(1)(a))
|Maximum||1 year incarceration|
|Avail. Disp.||same as summary|
|Maximum||3 years incarceration|
See Drug Trafficking (Offence)
- Trafficking in substance
5 (1) No person shall traffic in a substance included in Schedule I [opiates and related], II [cannaboids], III [psychedelics], IV [barbiturates] or V [repealed] or in any substance represented or held out by that person to be such a substance.
- Possession for purpose of trafficking
(2) No person shall, for the purpose of trafficking, possess a substance included in Schedule I [opiates and related], II [cannaboids], III [psychedelics], IV [barbiturates] or V [repealed].
(3) Every person who contravenes subsection (1) [trafficking in controlled substances] or (2) [possession of controlled substances for purpose of trafficking]
- [omitted (a), (a.1) and (b)]
- (c) where the subject-matter of the offence is a substance included in Schedule IV
- (i) is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or
- (ii) is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year.
(5) For the purposes of applying subsection (3) [trafficking in substance – punishment] in respect of an offence under subsection (1) [trafficking in controlled substances], a reference to a substance included in Schedule I [opiates and related], II [cannaboids], III [psychedelics], IV [barbiturates] or V [repealed] includes a reference to any substance represented or held out to be a substance included in that Schedule.
(6) [Repealed, 2018, c. 16, s. 196]
1996, c. 19, s. 5; 2012, c. 1, s. 39; 2017, c. 7, s. 3; 2018, c. 16, s. 196.
Participation of Third Parties
- Testimonial Aids
Certain persons who testify are entitled to make application for the use of testimonial aids: Exclusion of Public (s. 486), Use of a Testimonial Screen (s. 486), Access to Support Person While Testifying (s. 486.1), Close Proximity Video-link Testimony (s. 486.2), Self-Represented Cross-Examination Prohibition Order (s. 486.3), and Witness Security Order (s. 486.7).
A witness, victim or complainant may also request publication bans (s. 486.4, 486.5) and/or a Witness Identity Non-disclosure Order (s. 486.31). See also, Publication Bans, above.
- On Finding of Guilt
Under s. 738, a judge must inquire from the Crown before sentencing whether "reasonable steps have been taken to provide the victims with an opportunity to indicate whether they are seeking restitution for their losses and damages".
Under s. 722(2), the judge must inquire "[a]s soon as feasible" before sentencing with the Crown "if reasonable steps have been taken to provide the victim with an opportunity to prepare" a victim impact statement. This will include any person "who has suffered, or is alleged to have suffered, physical or emotional harm, property damage or economic loss" as a result of the offence. Individuals representing a community impacted by the crime may file a statement under s. 722.2.
Sentencing Principles and Ranges
- For General Sentencing Principles for all drug offences, see Sentencing for Drug Offences
- Maximum Penalties
Offences under s. 5(3)(c) are hybrid. If prosecuted by indictment, the maximum penalty is 1 year. If prosecuted by summary conviction, the maximum penalty is 3 years.
- Minimum Penalties
These offences have no mandatory minimum penalties.
- Available Dispositions
All dispositions are available.The judge may order a discharge (s. 730), suspended sentence (s. 731(1)(a)), fine (s. 731(1)(b)), custody (s. 718.3, 787), custody with probation (s. 731(1)(b)), custody with a fine (s. 734), or a conditional sentence (s. 742.1).
- Consecutive Sentences
There are no statutory requirements that the sentences be consecutive.
Schedule IV: Barbiturates, Steroids, etc.
Offenders found trafficking in a Schedule IV controlled substance (e.g. Barbiturates and steroids) are liable for either a indictable offence with a maximum penalty of 3 years incarceration or summary offence with a maximum penalty of 12 months in jail.
Ancillary Sentencing Orders
- Offence-specific Orders
|Weapons Prohibition Orders||s. 5 CDSA||
Circumstance-specific Forfeiture Orders
|Forfeiture of Proceeds of Crime (s. 462.37(1) or (2.01))||any||Where there is a finding of guilt for an indictable offence under the Code or the CDSA in which property is "proceeds of crime" and offence was "committed in relation to that property", the property shall be forfeited to His Majesty the King on application of the Crown. NB: does not apply to summary offences.|
|Fine in Lieu of Forfeiture (s. 462.37(3))||any||Where a Court is satisfied an order for the forfeiture of proceeds of crime under s. 462.37(1) or (2.01) can be made, but that property cannot be "made subject to an order", then the Court "may" order a fine in "an amount equal to the value of the property". Failure to pay the fine will result in a default judgement imposing a period of incarceration.|
|Forfeiture of Weapons or Firearms (s. 491)||any||Where there is finding of guilt for an offence where a "weapon, an imitation firearm, a prohibited device, any ammunition, any prohibited ammunition or an explosive substance was used in the commission of [the] offence and that thing has been seized and detained", or "that a person has committed an offence that involves, or the subject-matter of which is, a firearm, a cross-bow, a prohibited weapon, a restricted weapon, a prohibited device, ammunition, prohibited ammunition or an explosive substance has been seized and detained, that the item be an enumerated weapon or related item be connected to the offence", then there will be a mandatory forfeiture order. However, under s. 491(2), if the lawful owner "was not a party to the offence" and the judge has "no reasonable grounds to believe that the thing would or might be used in the commission of an offence", then it should be returned to the lawful owner.|
|Forfeiture of Offence-related Property (s. 490.1)||any||Where there is a finding of guilt for an indictable offence, "any property is offence-related property" where (a) by means or in respect of which an indictable offence under this Act or the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act is committed, (b) that is used in any manner in connection with the commission of such an offence, or (c) that is intended to be used for committing such an offence". Such property is to be forfeited to Her Majesty in right of the province. NB: does not apply to summary offences.|
Other Sentencing Orders
|Non-communication order while offender in custody (s. 743.21)||any||The judge has the discretion to order that the offender be prohibited "from communicating...with any victim, witness or other person" while in custody except where the judge "considers [it] necessary" to communicate with them.|
|Restitution Orders (s. 738)||any||A discretionary Order is available for things such as the replacement value of the property; the pecuniary damages incurred from harm, expenses fleeing a domestic partner; or certain expenses arising from the commission of an offence under s.402.2 or 403.|
|Victim Fine Surcharge (s. 737)||any||A discretionary surcharge under s. 737 of 30% of any fine order imposed, $100 per summary conviction or $200 per indictable conviction. If the offence occurs on or after October 23, 2013, the order has smaller minimum amounts (15%, $50, or $100).|
- CDSA Schedules
- Drug Trafficking, Schedule I (Sentencing): Maximum penalty of life
- Drug Trafficking, Schedule II (Sentencing): Maximum penalty of life
- Drug Trafficking, Schedule III (Sentencing): Maximum penalty of 10 years